Along with that, MST is capable of the correct identification of alcoholics from 79% to 100%, non-alcoholics from 36% to 95% (Murdoch, n.d.)

Along with that, MST is capable of the correct identification of alcoholics from 79% to 100%, non-alcoholics from 36% to 95% (Murdoch, n.d.)

In therapeutic doses, it causes decrease of the minute volume of pulmonary ventilation, mainly due to the decrease in the frequency of breathing without causing a noticeable effect on tidal volume. When exposed to toxic doses of morphine, the volume of pulmonary ventilation is reduced drastically. In contrast to morphine, tramadol at recommended doses practically does not inhibit breathing. However, these phenomena are not excluded in the drug overdose or while treatment of agents acting on the central nervous system. Unlike morphine, tramadol has no effect on the gastrointestinal motility (Freynhagen & Bennett, 2009).

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Morphine has a strong analgesic action. The force of this effect is 7.5 times less compared with morphine. According to Aronson, “Drug use in the 24 hours averaged 800 mg for tramadol and 40 mg for morphine” (2009, p. 156). After the oral intake of tramadol or morphine, they are almost completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Metabolites of morphine and tramadol are output mainly with urine. Tramadol and morphine are excreted by kidneys. Both analgesics are used in severe acute and chronic pains, postoperative periods, traumas, cancer patients, etc. Both drugs are forbidden to take with MAO inhibitors and have numerous side effects. In his book, Aronson states, “In a comparison of the analgesic effects of intermittent boluses of tramadol or morphine after abdominal surgery in 523 patients, tramadol caused more adverse effects (43 versus 34%), although the difference was not statistically significant” (2009, p. 156).

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Order Essay with this Title , highlights the story of Vivian Daly, an orphan who is on a journey to find a family that would take her in and a future. She is initially accommodated by Molly Ayer with whom they develop a significant connection. Vivian faces numerous tribulations in the course of her life as she tries to earn a living and make ends meet. In the course of her journey in the orphan train, she meets Dutchy, and they get married and have now a daughter, Sarah Dunnel. However, the passing away of her husband means she has to put the daughter up for an adoption. Fortunately, they are reunited at the end through the online world. The non-fictional story chosen is and it tells about Peter Jenkins’ decision to travel around the country and get a clear understanding of America. He decides to embark on the journey and makes stop-overs working in different places so he can earn money to sustain himself. While travelling, he comes across new people, loses friend, and undergoes a transformation in his faith.how to write a profile of a person sample Actually, Christina Baker Kline’s and Peter Jenkins’ demonstrate the view that the American Dream is a long journey with hurdles that only need determination and resilience to overcome. Nevertheless, not everyone has the opportunity to achieve it basically anchored on luck in most situations. Plagiarism Free Prices From only 12,99$/page

Comparing

The most significant similarity between the experiences of the dreamers in both texts and my personal experience is the hope for a perfect future the journey toward the American Dream. Vivian Daly, the heroine in is determined to find a family to take her in as she has lost hers in a fire. She does not give up on the journey despite the tough conditions such as being treated cruelly by Mrs. Bryne. In the illustration of this hope, Kline captures Daly’s assertion, “I learned long ago that loss is not only probable, but inevitable. I know what it means to lose everything, to let go of one life and find another…” (Kline 23). This means that she is committed to start a new life despite the loss she faced in the past. There is still a belief in a brighter future.

In the similar sense, Jenkins, the dreamer in , hopes for perfection and an amazing journey as he looks forward to understanding the true nature of America. He sets out on his trip with the hope that the future would be as welcoming as possible. He faces different obstacles, but is still determined to do the best and deepen his knowledge of the country. At the start of the journey, Jenkins states, “I’m walking across America. I started in the upper New York State in October and I’m heading down through the Deep South and then on over to the West Coast” (Jenkins 2). This is illustrative of his commitment to embark on a trip that would have a bright end and, maybe, the future. This basically relates to my personal experience as a student. I take education as my journey toward the future therefore the subsequent attainment of the American Dream. My success and achievement of this aim would probably come from my consistent pursuit of academics therefore the realization of the target set forward for me. Despite the many hurdles, I am as determined once the dreamers in both books to get to the ultimate goal of success.

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Contrasting

On the other hand, my experience differs from that of the dreamers in both books because their perception of the American Dream seems to be based on finding some form of accommodation and love from the people they meet along their journey. For instance, Daly loses everything, but the only thing she is determined to get is a family to take her in. In her initial stages of life, after the loss, she feels that it would be an achievement to just meet people who care and provide for needs in the best ways possible. Kline confirms her aspiration with the assertion, “People who matter in our lives stay with us, haunting our most ordinary moment.https://123helpme.me/ They’re with us in the grocery store, as we turn a corner, chat with a friend. They rise up through the pavement, we absorb them through our souls” (Kline 64). This is reflective of what the heroine really needs in her life to feel complete in the enjoyment of her American Dream. She is basically focused on people who matter to her.

Jenkins also seems to be driven by the people that are ready to be there for him in the course of his journey as he discovers America. For instance, the book says, “It happened again, I met another American whose generosity, it began to seem to me, gushed out of the spirit of this land” (Jenkins 86). This statement also indicates his enjoyment of the American Dream by simply meeting generosity.

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Both of these ideas differ from my own perception of the American Dream. I personally feel it is not primarily about the people one meets, but about what a individual person achieves. For example, from my experience, it is all about setting up a place like a successful business and reaping a desirable level of profits in the country.

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European countries today are actively providing assistance to other countries. According to statistics, the majority of its citizens think that their countries should help the others. Although, this amount varies through the countries, the average is more than 50%, while only 39% of the U.S. people agree to assist (Pew Research, 2012). For a long time, the United States has been an isolated country. However, nowadays it provides assistance to the underdeveloped countries by allocating money, food, and medicines. The U.S. spent more than $30 billion on foreign aid in 2013, which was the biggest sum in the world, while European countries provided more than $70 billion (OECD, 2014). Both Europe therefore the U.S. understand the importance of foreign assistance and actively participate in it.

The values regarding individualism and the role of the state significantly differ between the United States and Europe. The majority of Americans (58%) believe that it is more important for everyone to pursue their life’s goals without state’s interference, and only 35% say that is more important for the country to guarantee that nobody is in need (Pew Research, 2012). European citizens, in turn, want the state to ensure that nobody is in need ( more than 60%), and only minor part of them say that freedom of life is the highest value (around 35%) (Pew Research, 2012).

It is possible to compare Americans and Europeans on their ideas of nation’s superiority. Both of them believe that people in their countries are not perfect; however, they think that their culture is better than others (Pew Research, 2012). Despite this fact, nowadays Americans are less likely to say that their culture is superior to other. Through ages, this number has been declining. These views are also different through various age groups. In the U.S., older people still think that their culture is better than others, while younger generations do not think so. For Europe, such age differences are not common; however the beliefs about culture superiority depend on the level of education. More educated Europeans do not consider their culture to be the best one (Pew Research, 2012).

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Religion is the next aspect of comparison of Americans and Europeans. For the U.S. citizens, religion is more important than for Europeans. Half of Americans think that religion takes a weighty part of their lives, and it is necessary to believe in God (Pew Research, 2012). On the contrary, religion plays a important role in the life of around a fourth part of Europeans. In Germany, this amount is 21%, in Britain 17%, in France only 13% (Pew Research, 2012). Americans also believe that it is crucial to be religious in order to be moral and develop high values. Moreover, around 60% of Americans think that the strength of the United States is based on religion (Sloan, 2005). Probably, this is the reason why religion is so important for the politics of the USA. Europeans have opposite views on religion. Half of the people living in Europe responded that they never went to church. There are just two countries in Europe – Italy and Ireland, with a large number of religious people that is almost the same as in the USA (Frejka & Westoff, 2006). The views on religion for both Americans and Europeans are based on many factors, including political views, level of education, age, sex, and marital status.

The acceptance of homosexuality is another point of comparing the USA and Europe. In 2013, new Pew Survey was conducted in order to find out the nations that had positive or negative views on homosexuality. The research showed that Europeans had more positive attitude to the homosexuality and same-sex marriages than Americans. Around 60% of Americans thought that society should accept homosexuality, while in Spain this number was approximately 90%, in Germany – 87%, in France and Britain – more than 70% (Pew Research, 2013). Despite lower percentage of Americans accepting homosexuality, same-sex marriages are already legalized in some states of the country. In turn, nine European countries have already approved those marriages. The research has also showed that there was a connection between the religion and acceptance of homosexuality. For Americans, religion is more central, while Europeans are less religious people. For 50% of Americans religion plays an important role in life, however only each third European considers the same (Pew Research, 2013).

Overall, the U.S. and European values have more differences than similarities. Such components once the utilization of military, individualism therefore the role of state, the role of religion and acceptance of homosexuality vary, while beliefs about being a superior culture and assistance to other countries are mostly common. Americans rely more on power, appreciate the freedom of life choice and traditional sexual relations, and pay more attention to religion. At the same time, both Europeans therefore the U.S. citizens recognize the need of foreign assistance and believe that their cultures are superior.

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There is no evident difference between rich and poor countries in the United Kingdom, that is the reason standardization of marketing approaches can be successfully applied in these circumstances. However, despite economical homogeneity of UK society, consumer habits and tastes differ greatly from country to country. National character is also important in making conclusions about the UK market. For example, one advertising campaign might include different cultural codes for Ireland, Scotland, Wales and England. However, it is problematic to distinguish the market of the United Kingdom from the pan-European one. Political, economical, and geographical frontiers in Europe are slowly disappearing because of the mixing of lifestyles and consumer tastes.

Economical heterogeneity is one of key characteristics that can be applied to the Middle East, in a contrary to homogeneous European Union. The level of life in these countries ranges from extremely poor to prosperous. For example, Saudi Arabia, Israel, Turkey, Qatar, Kuwait, therefore the United Arab Emirates are rich countries with stable economical and political systems, while Cyprus, Egypt, Iraq, additionally the State of Palestine have problems in this regard. From 1945, mass production of oil started in countries like Iraq, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, and Saudi Arabia. This led to a formation of OPEC (the international oil cartel) and increased wellbeing of the countries with natural resources. So, it is possible to say that that the keystone of the success of some countries in the region is the presence of natural resources. Comparing to the United Kingdom, Kuwait’s marketing system relies more on nature than on employees, and big companies have monopoly in the market of natural resources. Great Britain, in its turn, relies more on small business and middle class workers.

Political situation in the countries of Middle East has been extremely difficult in the 20th therefore the 21st centuries. Local wars, conflicts, and ideological confrontation of the two big countries – the Soviet Union therefore the United States of America – created a deteriorating environment for the development of market. Despite revolutions and wars in Iraq, Syria, Egypt, Lebanon and other countries, economical situation in the Middle East is actively improving.

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Though, Kuwait remains a comparatively calm region in the political sense therefore the natural resources do not seem to end there in the nearest future. That is the reason the market of Kuwait is extremely attractive for the investors from western countries. Kuwait offers big international companies great opportunities to increase the number of their consumers and lower the costs of production. The fact that there are many poor countries in the region leads to a decrease of average hourly payments for workers because many people immigrate to more developed countries like Kuwait to earn money there.

There is another important aspect that has to be mentioned in describing Kuwait. In comparison to the United Kingdom, where people of all religions live nearby and do not fight because of these questions, Kuwait does not have such religious diversity. The majority of people are Muslims, and in some states the spiritual leader has even more power and authority then the President. In addition, the followers of two different trends in Islam, Shi’a and Suni, start armed conflicts because of religious differences. Muslim tradition is strict towards women, which also leads to economical stagnation in some countries of the Middle East and makes the market of the region quite specific for foreign investments. In comparison to this, Great Britain offers a stable environment that is free from unnecessary risks like revolutions or civil wars.

Johnson (1963) tries to unite traditional issues he mentions in his work into one concept of social system. He also introduced the concepts of environment, function, structure, process, and actors, which help analysts create a more detailed picture of local marketing system. Bartels defines these terms in the following manner: “The function” of an organism is the part it plays, the service it renders or the contribution it makes; its structure is the set of relationships between the organism’s actors. “Process” concerns the activities (including mere persistence) that bring the organism’s actors into interaction, and mediate the relations of the organism to its environment; process can also be conceived once the operation of the structure. “Actors” applies to the organism’s participants; while environment refers to what is outside an organism, and is neither directly controlling it nor directly controlled by it. (1970)

In the contemporary British market, the function can be referred to a consumer, to a startup as a small economic unit, and to the entire society. Different activities like advertising the production, selling, and buying it in the end create the network of relations that form the structure of the market. Businessmen, consumers, managers, and other people are the actors of a marketing system. The environment comprises of numerous aspects, among which are cultural, social, economical, and political factors. All these functions of marketing structure interact with each other in indirect and direct ways.

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In the case of Kuwait market, the function refers mostly to the state and big company that works with natural resources. The wellbeing of the entire society is determined by the overall state of economics in the country. As a result, marketing system that can be applied to Kuwait is shorter than the one applied to the United Kingdom. The number of managers, businessmen, and consumers falls in some states that are not highly developed. Cultural environment is extremely important in case of Kuwait, as it was mentioned in the paper. It is crucial to remember that the marketing analysis in the context of the environment is crucial in planning the managing work in the country.

The United Kingdom and Kuwait are different in various aspects. Cultural, political, and social environments create unique characteristics of local markets. Even though the UK is more homogeneous in economical terms, religious questions, therefore the overall political situation is predictable, Kuwait’s market is more attractive for some investors. It is growing rapidly, there is abundant workforce, therefore the average salary is lower than in Great Britain and other the Western countries. Despite all evident differences in marketing systems of the two regions, there are several common issues. For example, there are differences in the level of life in certain countries of the regions, which leads to workers’ immigration to more developed states. a thoroughly planned approach for managing the communication with the employees therefore the customers, as well as the positioning of the company on the market is impossible without analyzing the country’s marketing system and environment.

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Contrasting MAST and SASSI-3

Defining Validity and Reliability

The assessment practice includes the evaluation of information aiming to detect, analyze, and address the revealed issues, problems, and circumstances. One needs to be capable of dealing the described issues to assist the clients in the counseling practice. a skillful counseling practitioner uses assessment for the detection of the issues and problems, foster planning, assessing clients as well as informing the stakeholders. Balkin and Juhnkle (2014) state that a common mistake for the novice in counseling includes identification assessment as a means to an end, such as to providing a label or diagnosis to a client. Oppositely, one would advise to define it as a practice identifying “statements, actions, and procedures to help individuals, groups, couples, and families make progress in the counseling environment” (Balkin& Juhnkle, 2014). It is worth to mention that counselors may restrict their volume of practice regarding the scope of their work with situations, theories, and clients. However, counseling practitioners become experts only in case they understand the processes and procedures of assessment and evaluation. In this respect, one of the basic and the most critical aspects of work is the ability to assess the reliability and validity of one’s evaluation toolkit.

To successfully implement the framework of reliability and validity, one needs to define them. Davis and Morrow (n.d.) refer to reliability as “the desired consistency (or reproducibility) of test scores”. This criterion refers to the steadiness of examinee’s comparative performances over repetitive supervisions of the same test or its variations (Davis& Morrow, n.d.). Thus, a useful assessment tool is a reliable one. If one uses this characteristic to produce non-reliable decisions, it concludes that the decisions do not reflect the adequate information. That is why the criteria of reliability assist the counseling practitioner in sorting between sound and ill-informed toolkits.

Furthermore, another basic component of test development and evaluation is validation. Davis and Morrow (n.d.) regard validity once the extent to which verification and hypothesis sustain the explanation of test results entailed by the projected employments of tests. The scholars also claim that “validity is a … comprehensive evaluative judgment of the degree to which empirical evidence and theoretical rationales support the adequacy and appropriateness of interpretations and actions” (Davis & Morrow, n.d.). Consequently, the actions and interpretations are based on test scores or other modes of assessment. Also, one may consider validity a unitary concept that includes various ways of obtaining data that contribute to it. Moreover, it is not the feature of the test but the meaning of the scores in the test. At the same time, validation is a continuous process that should support test scores (Davis & Morrow, n.d.). Realizing the concept therefore the role of validity and reliability, a counseling expert has the strongest evaluation toolkit for one’s inventory. Further, the paper analyzes the MAST and SASSI-3 tests through the defined framework of reliability and validity.

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Defining the Credibility of the Tests

As one can clearly determine, both tests aim at recognition and evaluation of the individual’s dependence on drug substances. However, the analysis of their structure, administering, scoring, interpretation, and psychometric properties reveal various aspects regarding their strength and consistency. To define their credibility, one interprets the mentioned aspects through the framework of validity and credibility. Such measure assures their efficient analysis and enhances the objectivity of the analysis.

MAST is a test developed in 1971 not as a stand-alone diagnostic tool but for screening purposes. It provides a convenient and efficient measure of lifetime alcoholism and alcohol-related problems (Conoley, n.d.). The test has a 25-item questionnaire with a “yes” or “no” response. All items have different weight and provide a total score. Scores vary from 0 to 53 where the higher scores indicate the alcohol dependence issue. All of the items address the factors connected with drinking. For instance, such factors are reasons, consequences of drinking, and drinking-related behavior. Additionally, Murdoch (n.d.) reports that one can complete the test in 15 minutes, and its individual items show good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. One of the factors that add to its validity is the ability of the detection of cheating in answers to minimize false negatives. The experiments have shown that 92% of a group of known alcoholics who were instructed to lie on the measure were correctly classified (Murdoch, n.d.). One presumes that such tool should be implemented into any assessment test to raise its credibility and objectivity.

At the same time, SASSI-3 addresses the broader range of issues. Fernandez (n.d.) evaluates this test as making inferences about substance dependence disorder. Thus, some part of it addresses the problems with the alcohol use, whereas another one concerns other drug substances. The test is dated 1988 and includes two parts. One of them has 14 face valid items, and another one contains 67 items. The first part of the test has a scale of four points. At the same time, the second part has a true-false format. Additionally, the answers have the time frame indicator ranging from entire life to the past, before or since the last six months. Due to the fact that the test evaluates a broad range of factors, it has nine subclasses addressing alcohol, other drugs, symptoms, attributes and so on. One of the factors that seriously raise its validity is the Random Answer Pattern (RAP) enabling the detection of false answers (Pittenger, n.d.).

The MAST was developed to be administered in oral or written form. Despite the fact that it was initially invented for an oral examination, scholars have revealed its high reliability when being completed in paper-and-pencil format (Conoley, n.d.). Additionally, it has computerized versions. The test can also be executed by a professional and non-professional. However, one presumes such variety might negatively influence its objectiveness in case of being performed by a non-skilled practitioner. Although the initial format of the test indicated a score of five as alcoholic, later investigations proposed to elevate the cutoff scores to increase specificity. Assessing its reliability, one should indicate that its test-retest characteristics vary. Moreover, Murdoch (n.d.) indicates that some items on the MAST tend to be endorsed infrequently reducing their contribution to discriminating between alcoholics and non-alcoholics. Along with that, MST is capable of the correct identification of alcoholics from 79% to 100%, non-alcoholics from 36% to 95% (Murdoch, n.d.). The only negative issue affecting its reliability and validity concerns the classification in general psychiatric populations. The reason for this is that the test tends to produce a great number of false positives.

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In its turn, SASSI-3 has written and oral formats as well as the computerized one. Additionally, it has a audio edition designed for people with reading difficulties. One should interpret the scores with a reference to decision rule stipulating cutoffs for each subscale (Fernandez, n.d.). Thus, if the administrator exceeds the rules of a test, it leads to the indication of a high probability of a substance dependence disorder. That is the reason one presumes SASSI-3 requires to be performed by the qualified specialist to eliminate false positives and misinterpretations. Moreover, the studies comparing SASSI-3 with other tests have revealed that its results correlate with their scores. At the same time, Fernandez (n.d.) indicates that it was no more accurate than its counterparts and did not show incremental utility. Further studies showed that the results provided by SASSI-3 have lower accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity in patients with traumatic brain injury. One aspect that confuses the reliability of the test is the evaluation of substance dependence disorders. The reason for this is that it has no indications of the difference between the substance use disorders. Moreover, the practitioners confuse the results providing the references to the use, abuse or misuse of the substance. Fernandez (n.d.) regards that “the SASSI-3 can be used to flag for further evaluation of substance abuse disorder”. Thus, it gives just the average picture by indicating the degree of the problems connected with substance use disorders.

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After evaluating the reliability and validity of the MAST and SASSI-3, one can stress that both tests have their benefits and drawbacks. For instance, MAST is more reliable in detecting alcoholic issues, whereas SASSI-3 is capable of defining the broader range of issues. However, SASSI-3 has weaker accuracy towards those who abuse alcoholic substances. At the same time, being valid and reliable for the majority of people, both tests have problems when assessing the individuals that have psychic deviances.

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Political rights are the rights that protect individual’s interests in politics. They are the rights to: natural justice, right to be tried, right to legal process, right to vote, freedom to involve in political associations, movement and assembly. The political rights in Egypt were another thing. There was no right to formation of any political party. There was imprisonment without trial. Many people were indeed imprisoned without being taken to court for hearing. The state reserved the right to arrest any person and subject them to torture in order to acquire political information from them.

The Rights in the Pre-Revolution Era (Mubark’s Era)

The pre-revolution era was categorized by different human right violation, state’s infringement therefore the suffering of humanity in the land of Egypt. The truth is that there was little care concerning the citizens. Although the country appeared to have constitution and government, there was no care for lives of people and their various rights. 30 years of Mubarak’s rule were accompanied by many troubles therefore the most important of which is the emergency regime therefore the violation of human rights, which it accompanies.

The ruling system in Egypt before the revolution was ridged in that there was no remarkable change.